Schooling Systems in India
In this article, we’ll be having an overview of the present Schooling Systems in India.
School Education Boards:-
- National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT): NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India. It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India. NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies.
- State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments in India have at least one “State board of secondary school education”. However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one. Also the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a larger state.
- Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards that are called board exams. Students studying the CBSE Curriculum take the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) at the end of grade 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) at the end of grade 12.
- Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE – Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC – Class/Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE – Class/Grade 12).
- National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS): NIOS conducts two examinations, namely, Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary Examination (All India) and also some courses in Vocational Education.
- Islamic Madrasah: Their boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama.
- Autonomous schools: Such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan etc.
- International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge International Examinations (CIB): These are generally private schools that have dual affiliation with one of the school education board of India as well as affiliated to the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations (CIB).
- International schools, which offer 10th and 12th standard examinations under the International Baccalaureate, Cambridge Senior Secondary Examination systems or under their home nations school boards.
- Special education: A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education.
Levels of schooling:-
- Pre-Primary education: The pre-primary stage is the foundation of children’s knowledge, skills and behavior.
- Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years.
- Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years.
- LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years.
- UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years.
- Primary education: The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.
- Secondary education: Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18.
- 10th (Matriculation or Secondary) Exam: Students taking the grade 10 examination usually take six subjects: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, one language, and one optional subject depending on the availability of teachers at different schools. “Elective” or optional subjects often include Computer Applications, Economics, Physical Education, Commerce, and Environmental Science.
- 12th (Senior Secondary or Higher Secondary) Exam: Students taking the grade 12 examination usually take four or five subjects with English or the local language being compulsory. Students re-enrolling in most secondary schools after grade 10 have to make the choice of choosing a “core stream” in addition to English or the local language: Science (Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics), Commerce (Accounts, Commerce, and Economics), or Humanities (any three of History, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Geography depending on school).
Types of schools:-
·Government schools: Majority of the students study in the government schools where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. According to Education Ministry data, 65% (113 million,) of all school students in 20 states go to government schools (c. 2017).
·Government aided private schools: These are usually charitable trust run schools that receive partial funding from the government.
·Private schools (unaided): According to current estimates, 29% of Indian children are privately educated. With more than 50% children enrolling in private schools in urban areas, the balance has already tilted towards private schooling in cities; and, even in rural areas, nearly 20% of the children in 2004-5 were enrolled in private schools.
·International schools: As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed India as having 410 international schools.
·Home-schooling: Home-schooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option.
In India, the National Policy on Education (NPE) is providing knowledge for environment awareness, science & technology education and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the secondary school system.
Knowing the fact that once upon a time we were leading this world population with our great knowledge, skills, depth in educational parameters/standards and documentation abilities.
Current teaching methodologies in India might have to match up-to global standards and provide access to latest technology and practices, in order to prepare better learners.
In this growing age, today, we should be more focused and innovative when it comes to adapt new ideas, processes & techniques for the basic/elementary schooling systems.
Stay tuned for more.
Team Admission Uncle. (AU)